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New Globalism Paper
New Globalism-Literature Review
Neoliberal urbanism has been a critical subject over the recent years. However, neoliberal urbanism began to take root in the 1980 and has been spreading since then. The cities created as a result of neoliberal urbanism grow to have the characteristics of a free market utopia. Primarily, the neoliberal state plays a critical role in the in advancing the capitalist agenda. The capitalist plan then becomes a catalyst for the decrease in social reproduction and the growth of capitalist production. Gentrification has also played an essential role in creating urban cities and is associated mainly with cultural circulation and global capital. The shift from liberal to neoliberal policies have been experienced in major cities, for instance, New York (Smith, 2002). Significant changes have been made in the gentrification in the city. The process has not been without its challenges, but in the end, improvements have been made. Neoliberal urbanism is then not just an integral part of development, but a contribution to globalization as well.
In every aspect of globalization, maintaining the local element is essential. Much focus has been placed on urbanization that the local place has been neglected. Notably, globalization started in the 1970s through the expansion of the financial systems and foreign investments. At the time, globalization was characterized by the separation of wealth and poverty, immigrant labor and changes in class alignments. As a result, significant differences were experienced in the social and economic sectors. Even so, urban cities can now not be differentiated from the concept of globalization. While cities have had a variety of functions, what has become important is centralization of resources as per neoliberal urbanism. The Keynesian cities created now have no element of social reproduction. Importantly, while the aspect of globalization may have started in the 1970s, the concept had been then theorized by Adam Smith and Karl Max (Smith, 2002). With financial capital playing a pivotal role, the characteristics of an urban city will ultimately become similar to those of globalism.
An integral aspect of neoliberal urbanism is gentrification. However, gentrification has mainly been generalized and been accepted as a global urban strategy. Two concepts have become important; the construction of luxury houses in states that are the center of global power, and integration of a new model of urbanism that accommodates the middle-class as well. For instance, in London, the working-class quarters were taken up by the middle class, then the upper class and converted to expensive residences (Smith, 2002)...................GET A PLAGIARISM FREE COPY